A class of binding ligands for cocaine receptors and other receptors in the brain. Specifically, a novel family of compounds shows high binding specificity and activity, and, in a radiolabeled form, can be used to bind to these receptors, for biochemical assays and imaging techniques. Such imaging is useful for determining effective doses of new drug candidates in human populations. In addition, the high specificity, slow onset and long duration of the action of these compounds at the receptors makes them particularly well suited for therapeutic uses, for example as substitute medication for psychostimulant abuse. Some of these compounds may be useful in treating Parkinson's Disease or depression, by virtue of their inhibitory properties at monoamine transporters.

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