Image processing utilizing numerical calculation of fractional exponential powers of a diagonalizable numerical transform operator for use in an iterative or other larger computational environments. In one implementation, a computation involving a similarity transformation is partitioned so that one part remains fixed and may be reused in subsequent iterations. The numerical transform operator may be a discrete Fourier transform operator, discrete fractional Fourier transform operator, centered discrete fractional Fourier transform operator, and other operators, modeling propagation through physical media. Such iterative environments for these types of numerical calculations are useful in correcting the focus of misfocused images which may originate from optical processes involving light (for example, with a lens or lens system) or from particle beams (for example, in electron microscopy or ion lithography).


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