The present invention includes a method of providing a substrate; sequentially forming a seed layer over the substrate and forming a protection layer over the seed layer; and sequentially removing the protection layer and forming a conductor over the seed layer. The present invention further includes a structure having a substrate, the substrate having a device; an insulator disposed over the substrate, the insulator having an opening, the opening disposed over the device; a barrier layer disposed over the opening; a seed layer disposed over the barrier layer; and a protection layer disposed over the seed layer.


< Copper interconnect systems which use conductive, metal-based cap layers

< Methods for selective integration of airgaps and devices made by such methods

> Lanthanide oxide / hafnium oxide dielectrics

> MRAM device having low-k inter-metal dielectric

~ 00270